Just Dial Ltd (JDL) is one of the leading local search engines in India providing users of its “Just Dial” search service with information and user reviews from its database of local businesses, products and services across India. The company is coming with an offer for sale of 17,497,458 equity shares within a price band of Rs. 470 - Rs. 543.
The offer opens on May 20th 2013 and closes on 22nd May 2013.
Retail investors will get a discount of 10 % on the floor price i.e. Rs.47 per share. Also the company is offering a safety net for retail investors for a period of 180 days from the listing date. If the 121‐180 day VWAP (on day 181) is less than the retail offer price, the promoter group will buyback those shares at the retail offer price.
Business Background –
Just Dial Ltd. (JD) was founded and incorporated by first generation entrepreneur V S. S.Mani in 1993. Mr. Mani conceived the idea of providing up-to-date business listings 24x7 during its 2-year job stint with Yellow Pages during1987-89.
JD commenced its voice-based search business operation in 1996 in Mumbai. Today, the company has voice date center search service across 250 cities in India. It launched its local search web service in early 2007, and added SMS and mobile internet searchservices in the later part of the year.
The pre-IPO promoter holding stands at 37.1%, which is expected to decline to 33.1% post-IPO. Other than promoters, large institutional investors are Sequoia, SAIF and Tiger funds.
JD’s business model is B2B, wherein it earns revenue by charging a fee to run a campaign or have a premium listing on its platform. The client who pays listing fees gets its name posted on top of the search results in its category and location, or would be higher in ranking during a voice search or sms search.
The premium listing is divided into three categories: Platinum, Gold and Silver. The packages for the premium listings vary from weekly, monthly, quarterly to annually The fee for the same varies across industries and across sectors. For example, a restaurant in Mumbai would be charged more than a restaurant in tier-2 cities. Similarly, a high-end service like saloon would be charged more than a low-end service such as garage in the same location.
As on December 2013, JD had 9.1mn listings on its platform, of which 0.195mn listings (2%) were paying. Even if we assume that more than one-third of these listings were fake, inactive or repeated, even then nearly 3% of JD clients are paying.
More than 70% of its members are the ones who have paid the company earlier, thus highlighting the benefits clients enjoy from premium listings. Around 93% of JD’s revenue comes from top 11 cities
Strong brand equity, rich content and user-friendly platforms are the entry barriers to JD’s business model
Although JD’s business model and industry approach would sound simple in terms of setting up, the past has not proven so. There have been many new entrants in this business over last 5 years, but none of them have proven a threat to JD.
If one asks oneself is there is any other voice call number one remembers other than 88888888, the answer would be ‘NO’. Also, none of its competitors have even managed to build even half the listings, which JD has built over its existence spanning 17 years.
According to alexa.com, the globally renowned web analytics company, justdial.com, is ranked No. 36 in the top 100 websites in India and top site in its category. Even a very niche data search service provider such as burp.com and zomato.com are far behind JD.
High Operating Leverage, negative working capital, lower capex & treasury income – JD would generate huge cash with realistic growth
Over last 5 years, JD has grown manifold in terms of its reach, listings and paid membership. The company’s topline has grown at a CAGR of 40% over last 5 years, with PAT growing at a CAGR of 106% over same period. Its EBITDA margins, too, has expanded from sub 5% in FY08 to 28% for 9MFY13. This clearly depicts that there is high operating leverage in business, wherein PAT growth is at a much higher rate than topline growth.
Going forward, operating leverage would increase, as the customers search moves from voice to the Internet. Earlier, for every new city to enter and every voice call to service, JD had to incur a cost of infrastructure as well as human capital. But with the Internet as the medium and with voice reach already in 250 cities, these costs to the ratio of growing revenue would fall.
The business model is also low on capex, leading to a high asset turnover ratio. Every year the company would spend 5-8% of its operating revenue on the maintenance capex.
The hardware and software would be revamped every 4.-5 years to keep pace with the latest technology.
JD has negative working capital since it collects sales in advance, giving no credit to clients. With no inventory and debtors, growth in business would lead to higher cash generation from the balance sheet.
Financial Performance –
JD’s IPO and offer price range Just Dial's revenues increased at 39% CAGR over FY08-FY12 to Rs.262.1 crs. in FY12 (Rs.264.5 crs in 9 months of FY13).
The strong revenue growth was driven by growth in paid listings/campaigns which grew more than four times to 171000 in FY12 from 40500 in FY09 (195100 listings in 9MFY13).
As a result , EBITDA margin increased to 25.7% in FY12 from 5.0% in FY08. As Just Dial’s business is not capital intensive and it does not have net debt, improvement in EBITDA margin has led to an improvement in PAT margin.
PAT margin increased to 20% in FY12 from 2.4% in FY08. Also, RoE improved to 53.6% in FY12 from 6.7% in FY08. JD reported a EPS of Rs 9.4 in FY12. And the company is debt-free with a negative working capital cycle.
Valuation & Long term Prospects –
JD’s IPO and offer price range are ideally suited for an investor who believes on the growth potential of an evolving industry and the position of the company to capitalize on the same. In the listed space, two closest comparable peers to JD are Yelp Inc. and Info Edge Ltd. While the former is US-based NYSE listed content search service provider, the latter is India-based listed player which makes money from operating sites like naukri.com, jeevansathi.com, 99acres.com, shiksha.com, etc.
Yelp is the closest comparable in terms of business, while in India Info Edge part of classifieds market is closest peer in listed space. Yelp is trading at a PE of 76x FY14 while Infoedge trades at a PE of 24x FY14E
Hence although JD’s pricing looks expensive, we believe its justified by the immense potential to generate strong cash flows going ahead. Hence the premium paid would be for the uniqueness of its business and scarcity of same in the listed space. We hence advise a SUBSCRIBE to this IPO with a potential upside of 15-20%% on higher price band. But we advise this IPO mainly for long term investors.
The recommendation is given as per our research. Our company accepts no liability for the content of this document, or for the consequences of any actions taken on the basis of the information provided, unless that information is subsequently confirmed in writing.
Return on Enterprise value (ROEV) is a stock valuation formula used in value investing strategies. Combining enterprise value and net cash flow into a ratio provides a powerful tool for investment analysis.
Return on Enterprise Value
Return on Enterprise Value (ROEV) is net cash flow divided by enterprise value. I believe it is the single most valuable stock valuation calculation in the investment universe. An investor should never make investment decisions based on a single calculation, but if I could only use one stock valuation formula it would be ROEV.
Stock Valuation Calculation
Net Cash Flow (NCF) divided by Enterprise Value (EV) = Return on Enterprise Value (ROEV)
Use Net Cash Flow as the numerator and Enterprise Value as the denominator to calculate the Return on Enterprise Value.
Compare and Value Company Shares
Enterprise value provides the most valuable business valuation metric. One of the advantages of enterprise value is that it equalizes companies with different capital structures by making adjustments for debt and cash. This provides equality for comparing the performance of companies with very different balance sheets. By adjusting for debt and cash, enterprise value provides the total value of a company as if you were purchasing the whole business at the current market value.
Net cash flow provides the most important financial income metric: How much cash is generated from operations. Profits can be deceiving due to accounting entries. Cash flow is real and is hard to manipulate.
Combining cash flow and enterprise value as a ratio produces Return On Enterprise Value. ROEV provides the analyst the rate of return on the total value of the business (EV). In other words it measures, as a percentage, the real amount of money (cash flow) being produced today (not accounting profits) based on what the business is valued at today (not book value).
What do you think of Return on Enterprise Value as a value investing strategy?
Enterprise value (EV) represents the total value of a company. While market capitalization is the total value of a company’s equity share, enterprise value is the total value of the whole company because it factors in the company’s debt and cash holdings.
In other words, Enterprise Value (EV) measures the value of the assets that produce the company’s product or service; both the equity capital (market capitalization) and debt capital. Because it measures the productive assets it is a valuable measurement for key ratios such as Return on Enterprise value
Calculating Enterprise Value
Enterprise Value (EV) = Market Capitalization + Total Debt – Cash
The idea of Enterprise Value (EV) is to calculate what it would cost to purchase the entire company or business. In order to calculate the total value of a business a buyer would add equity (market capitalization) and debt, and subtract cash. Debt increases the cost of acquiring the company, so it is added. Cash would be an asset that could offset debt or be absorbed by the acquirer, to it is subtracted from the equation.
Why is this Company Valuation Method Important?
Enterprise value is a measure of the economic value of a company. Because allowances for liabilities and cash are made; enterprise value is a capital structure neutral metric. This makes it extremely useful in analyzing and comparing companies with different capital structures.
Market Capitalization and Enterprise Value
Example of Difference
Companies with identical market capitalizations can have radically different enterprise values. Company A may have considerable debt and little cash, while Company B might have little debt and considerable cash.
_________Market Cap. + Debt – Cash = EV
Company A: 5 billion + 5 billion - 1 billion = 9 billion EV
Company B: 5 billion + 0 billion - 2 billion = 3 billion EV
Both companies have a 5 billion dollar market capitalization but Company A has an enterprise value of 9 billion and Company B an enterprise value of 3 billion. When comparing company A to company B, company A is riskier than company B because it has a high amount of debt. Also, company A would have to provide a much higher return in dollars to compensate for its high value and greater risk.
Enterprise value is my favorite company valuation method. I constantly use it to compare investment opportunities. When you buy a stock you are buying a percentage share of the whole company. Enterprise value is the current market price if you were purchasing the entire company. Why would you value a company differently just because you are buying only a percentage? Analysts use metrics such as revenues, EBITDA, and net cash flow in relation to enterprise value for the purpose of comparing company valuations. The key is to remember enterprise value is the total value of the whole company and extremely useful in analyzing and comparing companies with different capital structures.
Interest compounding is a powerful financial concept, but dividend growth compounding multiplies the benefits of exponential growth. Compounding occurs when interest or dividends are reinvested and added to what is already there.Compound growth is geometric or exponential growth (i.e. 1,2,4,8,16,32,64) in contrast to linear growth (i.e. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7). Even though the growth rate may remain the same, the amount of interest or dividends each time period is not constant but increases each successive period of time. This makes time the most important element for taking advantage of this wealth building strategy.
Illustration of Interest Compounding Compared to Dividend Compounding
Here is an illustration to compare and contrast investing in fixed rate investments such as a CD or bond versus investing in a dividend growth stock, or better yet, a portfolio of dividend growth stocks. Investor A chooses to purchase a fixed rate investment which earns 4% and will reinvest the interest each year. The powerful benefits of compounding are illustrated by the fact the amount of interest each year becomes larger and larger even though the interest rate remains stable at 4%. In 30 years the fixed rate investment grows over 3 times as big as the original investment. In 50 years the value increases to over 7 times the original investment. Investor B chooses to invest in dividend growth stocks and participate in compounding through reinvesting dividends. Our illustration assumes a 4% dividend (same as the interest for Investor A) with a modest 3% annual increase in the dividend and stock price.
In 30 years the dividend stocks increase over 7 1/2 times more than the original investment. In 50 years the portfolio grows almost 30 times the original investment. This example is a conservative one. Imagine if Investor B were able to consistently purchase stocks that grow faster than the modest 3% in this example.
|Interest Compounding||Dividend Growth Compounding|
|Year||4% Interest Rate||Interest Earned Annually||Total Value||Dividends Per Share (increases 3% per year)||Share Price ( increases 3% per year)||Dividend Reinvest Adds # of Shares||Total Shares w/ reinvestment of dividends||Total Value of Shares|
Investor A has the advantage of exponential growth in interest. But Investor B has several additional advantages that multiply the benefits of exponential growth compounding. When reinvesting dividends more shares of an appreciating asset are purchased. As Investor B adds shares his stock dividends become larger and larger because of additional shares, but also because he is benefiting from the increase in the dividends per share.
Making Dividend Growth Investing Practical
Interest compounding and dividend compounding works with any investment amount and can be multiplied many times over by making annual or regular contributions to a portfolio. Starting early greatly enhances the advantages because delaying investments, even for short periods of time, subtracts from investment returns due to the fact benefits are back loaded.
Dividend growth investing combines the benefits of compounding dividends, compounding the growth of dividends per share, and the increasing value of the shares themselves. The key principle is to take advantage of the power of exponential growth by reinvesting growing dividends over long periods of time.
Interest compounding and dividend compounding each provide the benefits of exponential growth. A comparison of the two gives an illustration of the extraordinary returns that can be provided by dividend compounding. Implementing a dividend growth investing strategy can provide increasing income and build extraordinary wealth for the patient investor.
Types of Investment Risk
Risk is the amount an asset (i.e. your investment portfolio) deviates from its’ expected value, and probability of that deviation. Total Risk is made up of two types of investment risk; systematic and unsystematic.
Systematic risk is risk associated with market returns. This is risk that can be attributed to broad factors. It is risk to your investment portfolio that cannot be attributed to the specific risk of individual investments. Sources of systematic risk could be macroeconomic factors such as inflation, changes in interest rates, fluctuations in currencies, recessions, wars, etc. Macro factors which influence the direction and volatility of the entire market would be systematic risk. An individual company cannot control systematic risk. Systematic risk can be partially mitigated by asset allocation. Owning different asset classes with low correlation can smooth portfolio returns because asset classes react differently to macroeconomic factors. When some asset categories (i.e. domestic equities, international stocks, bonds, cash, etc.) are increasing others may be falling and vice versa.
I prefer using a tactical asset allocation because I want to adjust my asset allocation target according to valuations. When mitigating systematic risk within a diversified portfolio, cash may be the most important and under appreciated asset category.
Unsystematic risk is company specific or industry specific risk. This is risk attributable or specific to the individual investment or small group of investments. It is uncorrelated with stock market returns. Other names used to describe unsystematic risk are specific risk, diversifiable risk, idiosyncratic risk, and residual risk. Examples of risk that might be specific to individual companies or industries are business risk, financing risk, credit risk, product risk, legal risk, liquidity risk, political risk, operational risk, etc. Unsystematic risks are considered governable by the company or industry. Diversification can nearly eliminate unsystematic risk. If an investor owns just one stock or bond and something negative happens to that company the investor suffers great harm. But if an investor owns a diversified portfolio of 20, 30, or 40 individual investments, the damage done to the portfolio is minimized.The important concept of unsystematic risk is that it is not correlated to market risk and can be nearly eliminated by diversification.
Probability and Expected Value
The expected value or return of a portfolio is the sum of all the possible returns multiplied by the probability of each possible return. Risk is the amount of deviation and the probability of that deviation from the expected return. Total portfolio risk is reduced by mitigating systematic risk with asset allocation, and unsystematic risk with diversification. Mitigation of systematic and unsystematic risk allows a portfolio manager to put higher risk/reward assets in the portfolio without accepting additional risk. This is called portfolio optimization. In other words, a manager is willing to accept a given amount of risk. The total risk of the portfolio is lowered through proper asset allocation and diversification. Now the the manager can add more aggressive investments to the portfolio and still maintain the given amount of risk he is willing to accept.
Systematic Risk and Unsystematic Risk
Systematic and unsystematic risks can be partially mitigated with risk management strategies such as asset allocation and diversification. Used properly, a manager can increase portfolio returns and/or reduce risk to optimize an investment portfolio.
Bankruptcies are not often a surprise to the financial community, and no particular person investor who retains up with events needs to be caught unaware. It is because bankruptcy is normally the end of an erosional process .It may be attributable to poor administration, sudden changes in the enterprise, legal points, industry wide problems, labor issues, creditor issues, or just plain unhealthy luck. We see complete industries where a big quantity, if not all, of the participants have gone through bankruptcy. Latest examples are the airways, asbestos firms, film home chains, auto elements manufacturers, telecoms, and steel companies. Extra frequent, nonetheless, are firms that accumulate an extreme quantity of debt, both by means of failed acquisitions or years of unfavorable working results. Such defaults are easy to predict, even all the way down to when they'll occur. This is because the decision to go into bankruptcy is usually not made by the company, however quite is in the the banks. Banks take a quite simple strategy to the choice of how long to let a company go on failing. They do periodic opinions of the stability sheet of an organization and determine the going-concern worth of the enterprise.
As lengthy as that worth is larger than the value of their loans to the company,they will permit it to continue and can even fund the losses, even when a portion of such loans goes to paying curiosity to less-senior collectors or bondholders. Crunch time typically comes when the financial system slows down or the business goes into a slump. It's because, as soon as a downturn occurs, the banks discover that the going-concern value of the enterprise has abruptly dropped to where a portion of their loan is now in jeopardy. They had been willing to go along with the corporate earlier than as a end result of perhaps the enterprise would turn around, however when the accumulation of losses and an economic downturn finally forces the problem, they pull the plug.
Observe that financial institution-precipitated bankruptcies described less harshly by the media as “banks tightening credit score” or “raising loan requirements” are additionally the explanation why bankruptcy comes in waves, the place all of the sudden dozens of firms are submitting chapter on the similar time i.e., a time when the economic system or business is slowing. It has the unfortunate facet impact of creating a perception that risk has out of the blue increased, inflicting rates of interest on high-yield bonds to jump to ranges that effectively close the model new-problem market for such debt to be refinanced. It's also believed by some that the effect exacerbates the economic conditions that triggered the defaults and makes the economic downturn extra prolonged. If the banks have accomplished their homework precisely, then little within the manner of restoration will be obtained by the lowly bond or most effectively-liked investors.
This is because, in chapter, a strict rule of precedence is observed in satisfying the claims of banks, bondholders, basic collectors, workers, the IRS, most well-liked holders, and shareholders. Since banks are the most hands-on lenders, they be certain they write themselves in as the senior claimants. This not only ensures they get fully paid, it also gives them a place on the creditors’ committees the place they'll block any reorganization plan to not their liking. They're also ready to insist the company be liquidated if they don't seem to be confident the enterprise or the corporate administration can succeed. It was not all the time this way,but over the years, the chapter guidelines have become increasingly professional-bank.
A certain sign that there could additionally be value for the bondholder who is caught in a chapter state of affairs is when a vulture fund or vulture investor is reported to be shopping for up bonds of the company. Such traders often will approach the financial institution creditors first and buy out the financial institution debt at some discounted value. Then they buy as a lot of the more senior bond debt as they really feel will permit them to be main individuals within the reorganization plan. As a bondholder, it may well be value your whereas to hold on to your bonds if you're on the same seniority degree because the bonds being bought by the vulture investors. You definitely don’t want to maintain bonds which are junior to their declare, since they've little want to see you get anything. They're enjoying a zero-sum game, where you and everybody behind you might be zeros. The truth is, they'll work exhausting to show that the corporate is worth only as a lot as their claims and not a dime more. The recent exit from chapter by Kmart is a transparent instance of this. The inventory, which went to the senior group, was valued at solely $14 a share for functions of compressing out the junior creditors. Within seven weeks of the bankruptcy being settled, those shares were trading at $22 a share and reached $a hundred thirty a share within two years. Worth perceptions like that did not just begin the day after the bankruptcy was settled.
To get technical for a moment, most bankruptcies are filed by a firm and are filed as Chapter 11 bankruptcies in considered one of 92 federal chapter courts. A creditor also can file a bankruptcy on behalf of a firm as a method of trying to pressure cost, however this usually precipitates the corporate filing, which is the submitting the courtroom is extra possible to accept. The company management is left in place to conduct enterprise as common, offered the company has arranged a debtor-in-possession line of credit which takes priority over all different money owed of the company except the chapter attorneys’ fees. If a company’s administration is considered incompetent or is suspected of illegalities, the court docket might appoint a trustee to run the company instead. A Chapter eleven proceeding may go on for years, so lengthy as the court grants the corporate continuous exclusivity periods, during which no one besides the company can propose a plan of reorganization. Current laws has sought to cap this exclusivity interval to sixteen months. If the court decides the company can not obtain a workable plan, the exclusivity period may be allowed to end and any creditor groups can propose a plan instead. Typically, that plan is to liquidate the corporate.If this happens, the courtroom appoints a trustee who then,if the corporate is large enough, has a job for life. Or a minimum of that is what most collectors perceive. As such, they are going to comply with virtually any plan somewhat than face this solution. Some firms file for a Chapter 7 bankruptcy from the beginning, however that is mostly for smaller firms or those that can't acquire a credit line.
If you're concerned with a chapter as a creditor, it is worthwhile understanding the levels a chapter goes through, because it impacts the valuation of the debt security you are holding. When a chapter is first filed, the U.S. Lawyer for the district through which the filing takes place will decide how many creditor committees will most likely be allowed and who will sit on them. Sometimes, there's a committee for the banks and all senior secured lenders. Subsequent is the committee for the unsecured lenders-these are the unsecured bondholders and trade creditors. There may additionally be a junior collectors’ committee if enough such debt exists. Most popular stockholders could have a committee and customary shareholders might have a committee. Some of the extra junior creditors and shareholders might not have a committee till later in the process if it is determined they could have standing in the bankruptcy which means there could be sufficient possible value in the firm to fulfill everybody forward of them and nonetheless leave them a declare of some kind. If there is any doubt of this, a valuation listening to can be held a while earlier than a remaining reorganization plan is finalized and approved. At that hearing, shareholders might be allowed to present arguments that there's value left for them. The appearance of such a valuation battle is nice information for bondholders since, by implication, there first needs to be recognition of full value for their claims for shareholders to get something beyond nuisance worth i.e., a token amount provided in lieu of a protracted valuation combat.
Once the creditor committees are fashioned, the enjoyable begins. The company will report to these committees on the funds of the company and on what is going on concerning the formulation of a reorganization plan. Points akin to lease terminations, contract renegotiation with staff, contract settlements with prospects and suppliers, and facility closings have to be addressed. In short, the company must first tackle what the continued enterprise is going to look like. This generally takes one to 2 years to achieve. Out of this, however, comes a enterprise operating projection from which a model new firm steadiness sheet could be constructed. This is vital with a view to determine how a lot debt the new company can carry and also what the projected value of the shareholders’ fairness might be. It is this new debt and new shareholders’ value that is the forex for settling all pre bankruptcy claims. In brief, can all financial institution claims continue to be serviced by the model new entity, or will the banks need to take some shares of stock? Then how a lot stock is left to satisfy all junior claims? That is the crux of the claims’ settlement portion of the reorganization plan, and likewise essentially the most contentious part. The more important decision of how the enterprise will look going ahead is pretty a lot left to management to determine. Since these are often the same individuals who were in charge earlier than bankruptcy, it is not surprising that a second bankruptcy submitting inside 5 years is no longer uncommon.
As a bond investor, you must know that as a matter of regulation, not only do interest and principal funds on all debt stop the day the company information, but no interest accrues on such debt from that day forward. This does not mean you won’t get such interest amounts, solely that such recoveries are very unlikely. One exception to this rule is that if you occur to maintain a mortgage obligation of the company and there may be no question that the collateral value is greater than your claim value, then you'll have the option to proceed to obtain interest funds while the bankruptcy is ongoing. Another exception to the interest rule is if you hold a municipal bond that's backed by lease fund on a store or airport gate, for example. In these cases, if the company decides it desires to proceed to operate that retailer or gate, it should continue the lease payments. To you it is curiosity; to the bankruptcy court docket it's rent. As quickly as a company records data chapter, bonds commerce without accrued curiosity, or flat. They might begin trading flat even earlier than a bankruptcy submitting in the event that they previously did not make any interest fee on time or if chapter is seen as inevitable.
Understanding the bankruptcy cycle is important for figuring out when to sell your bonds or preferreds. Most bankrupt securities reach their lowest valuation in the weeks before the precise filing. It is because many institutions have a fiduciary legal responsibility that could make them chargeable for any losses on an funding as a consequence of bankruptcy, but no duty in the occasion that they promote earlier than a bankruptcy filing. On the buy facet, simply earlier than a filing, there's nice uncertainty and little data of how issues will turn out. Therefore, many sellers, few buyers. Once chapter takes place, your vulture buyers transfer in and begin buying, but these people are in no hurry, so don’t count on costs to bounce up. Any bounce is usually based mostly on again-of-the-envelope calculations of what the value of the reorganized company would possibly be. Additionally, sure vulture traders will draw followers based mostly on their reputation for past success. Here, too, if the corporates failure was for technical reasons and the underlying business is sound, vital recovery may be anticipated even when a closing settlement plan is far off (e.g., USG).
In making a judgment about how much of a recovery you may obtain by holding on, take a look at the balance sheet of the company. Assume all of the intangible belongings of the company comparable to for goodwill will be written off. Assume also that unfunded prices similar to pension, well being care, lease termination, and plant closings will all have creditor claims on par together with your bonds. To maintain the stability sheet balanced, all such write-offs and value accruals will first reduce the shareholders equity to zero after which the popular stock fairness to zero after which the junior debt, reminiscent of convertible bonds, to zero. To the extent these quantities exceed all these values, bondholders will take a discount in their pro rata declare amount. Nevertheless, remember the very fact that the reorganized company’s stock, if the business is viable, could also be significantly more precious than the earlier shareholders’ equity. Yes, it’s very a lot a finger-in the- air train, however you’d be amazed to know that most of the plans put together by corporations before and after a bankruptcy have little more substance than this.
The message it's finest to come away with from this narrative is that bankruptcy is a software for corporations to enhance their enterprise on the expense of all stakeholders, not just the shareholders. As a fixed-income investor, you will be dragged into the method, however this does not mean you'll lose everything. It is a interval of uncertainty and a variety of false alarms and false information. Read the whole lot, question all the pieces, and don’t act in haste or on emotion.
Regardless of your best efforts, you could discover after retirement that you are going to survive your funding assets. Such a blessing should not develop into a burden. Here are some methods to contemplate, protecting in mind that the longer you wait to implement them, the more of a payout they may yield. Have not mentioned annuities so far as a end result of, for the most half, they are really not an investment. They are often ultimate for somebody over 70 who is in good well being and who wants to exchange a low certain payout for the upper threat of the securities market. This is also an excellent option if you may have been doing all the investment management to date and concern leaving your spouse to the mercies of strangers.
Choice and options of an annuity plan are fairly complicated, nearly worthy of a book of their own. For the explanation that payouts are primarily based in your age, the longer you wait before signing on, the better your monthly funds for any given principal amount. You ought to buy an annuity from a multitude of brokers, including accountants, banks, brokers, and insurance companies. Ask around amongst pals to find a knowledgeable agent. Resolve ahead of time to not decide in lower than per week, because that is not a decision you'll have the option to reverse with out heavy penalties. Additionally, be certain the insurer is highly rated, credit wise, and will outlive you.
If you own a home free and clear, you could want to think about a reverse mortgage, whereby the lender pays you a month-to-month amount till your demise or until you vacate the house. At that time, you'll have to promote the property and repay the mortgage. The charges and interest rates are fairly high for such a mortgage, and the lender will take half in any gain on the sale. Such mortgages do, nevertheless, provide a means for persevering with to live in your home after you run out of funds.
A third strategy to consider is promoting your life insurance coverage to a third party. This strategy requires some replanting, for the reason that coverage should have been in place for a number of years to qualify. With correct planning, an insurance coverage can function a security valve, do you've to need it, and still be the source of a residual property in case you don’t.
Your tax return ought to be an integral part of your funding program for the easy purpose that it could possibly earn money for you. With even a minimum of planning, you must be able to generate the $3,000 a 12 months in capital losses the IRS allows you as an offset towards atypical earnings, except you would possibly be a kind of who will still be working off your tax loss carry forward from the year 2000 into the following decade.
While there might be little you can do about the curiosity income and dividends you obtain annually, you'll have the opportunity to actually do something about capital gains. You in all probability have a diversified portfolio, you'll generally have losers and winners every year. At year-end, unload the quick-time period losers first and notice those losses. Sell long-term losers next till you get to the $3,000 mark. Be sure that each loss is massive enough to warrant the commissions to promote, after which reinvest the funds. Also, if you want to get back into the identical safety, wait not less than 30 days. If you personal a mutual fund or closed-finish fund, look at their yr-finish dividend distribution policy and the likely payout for this year. Many pay out sizable capital gains to holders of report on a selected year-finish date. In the event you don’t need that distribution, promote before the ex-date. Should you do want capital positive factors, you ought to buy into such distributions by buying closed-finish funds.
Belief preferreds and most popular stocks provide a chance for you to alter the character of your good points in response to your tax needs. This is because preferreds commerce with accrued earnings embedded of their price. Therefore, on their ex-dividend date, they begin once more at zero, since all dividends or curiosity as a lot as that point go to the holder of the safety on the previous day. Since we're talking here about three or six months’ price of curiosity or dividends, the amounts could be a dollar or extra per share. When you have tax-loss carry forwards, it may be advantageous to sell a holding the day earlier than the ex-date, recognize a capital acquire, and then buy it again on the ex-date when the worth is generally decrease by the quantity of the dividend. If you deal with a reduction dealer, the commissions are minimal and, as typically as not, you'll have the option to repurchase the shares at a price even decrease than the previous day’s, less the dividend, since many investors tend to sell the day after they accumulate their dividend.
Taxation and Obligatory Convertible Preferreds
Mandatory convertible preferred securities have all the time been controversial.That is, partly, because they more intently tie the mounted-revenue investor’s fortunes to the performance of the stock than do optionally available preferreds. In brief, if the common inventory price occurs to be depressed at the point in time when the conversion date is reached, you might get, say, 20 p.c more stock than if the inventory had appreciated. However, there are severe adverse tax penalties to mandatory convertibles when they convert below the par value equivalent. It's because most of these convertible preferreds consist of two parts: a bond and a purchase contract.
This complicated tax remedy is one thing an investor must take into consideration before the actual conversion date. If you need to avoid this acquire/loss state of affairs, you may opt to promote the preferred shares earlier than the redemption date and have a long-term capital lack of $6.15. However, for these who can’t use the acquire in the present 12 months to offset different losses, you may wish to maintain the shares over to subsequent 12 months after which resolve when to take the then-current gain or loss.
Unfortunately, if the widespread inventory is value less than you paid for the convertible, the tax consequences work in reverse. Then the IRS rules are that you just redeemed the convertible loan contract at face worth, even in the event you bought it at, say, eighty cents on the greenback, or worse, paid a dollar and the frequent inventory you get is value only eighty cents. In that case, you've gotten the unlucky scenario of getting a 20 cents per share loss, which the IRS considers as 20 cents of revenue instead. Only by selling the stock earlier than that yr-end can you be assured of getting your true loss recognized. While these tax remedy issues seem incidental, they give you one of many few ways in which you can create taxable losses or gains legitimately, as and when needed, with out assuming any additional risk. For that reason alone, they're price your attention.
For the actually intelligent investor, you may even consider shopping for such a safety as a automobile for shifting capital positive aspects or losses from one tax period to a different and for changing their nature. Take into account, also, that when such a security is at a premium to par worth, the tax consequences are the reverse. Hence you can play this tax sport both ways. However, as cautioned earlier than, seek the advice of your tax adviser beforehand.Tax Reporting At 12 months-finish, most investors are being inundated with particular statements from brokerage homes and mutual funds. Recently, I’ve discovered that the array of stories is greater than ever due to the new tax therapy accorded dividend payments. Additionally discover that the extent of misinformation is at an all-time high.
Authentic Subject Discount
Some of the annoying options any security can have is a requirement to pay taxes on earnings you never received. Such phantom income is called original subject discount (OID). The quantity of such OID is calculated at year-finish by the brokerage companies and diligently reported to the IRS. It is among the things the IRS can examine for all taxpayers as a result of it can match it to your return electronically; hence, it's not one thing you want to overlook.
There are at the least 3 ways OID can happen. The most typical is when a bond is issued at a reduction from its face value. This includes all zero-coupon bonds, but in addition many others that have been issued at a reduction and that solely started paying after various years (step-up bonds). You will want to report the OID as curiosity earnings, however you're allowed to add the identical quantity to your price basis for the safety, as a consequence of it's only whenever you sell or redeem the security that you really acquire this interest.
A second, and most annoying, type of OID is on unpaid most popular stock dividends, also referred to as dividends in arrears or arrear age. Right here the IRS provides insult to harm by taxing you on a dividend you have been supposed to get but didn’t as a end result of it was postponed. The IRS appears to be like solely at the fact that you are entitled to a dividend and never whether you really acquired it. The issue is that if you sell the safety before the arrear age is lastly paid, you add the dividends to your cost foundation and thereby enhance your capital loss. This is because when you sell the stock, the arrear age becomes the property of the new holder, who has the blissful circumstance that when the dividends in arrears are finally paid, it's only a return of that holder’s capital and never thought of income. You ought to due to this fact concentrate on this tax remedy when a dividend arrear age occurs, since it may be higher for you tax wise to sell the popular while the loss continues to be brief term. Word that when payment of the dividend seems imminent or was never significantly in doubt, the price of the security will typically replicate the again a rearage properly earlier than it's paid.
A 3rd supply of OID comes with convertible preferreds. These securities usually encompass a notice and a purchase order contract for the conversion privilege. This structure leads the IRS to require the holder to make use of the accrual fairly than the money basis for recognizing income. This signifies that the brokerage firm reports your accrued earnings primarily based on the every day dividend accrual fee occasions the variety of days you held the security. Sadly, it also reviews the dividends actually received, so that you need to be sure to don’t report the same earnings twice. In reality, if you bought the safety just before an ex-dividend date, your revenue obtained could exceed the OID accrual. I query whether or not the IRS computers can preserve this situation straight, so verify along with your tax advisor on what to do to avoid a deficiency letter.
Another of the sad penalties of the OID rules is that most brokerage houses do not acknowledge when a company has filed for bankruptcy. Therefore, they may report OID earnings on the bonds and preferreds of such firms, ignoring the truth that, by legislation, curiosity ceases to accrue the day chapter is filed. Getting a giant tax invoice for revenue you by no means received is bad sufficient; getting it on revenue you'll never get is maddening. So keep your records in order, and when a dispute arises, attempt to find someone in the IRS knowledgeable sufficient to know this specific problem.
Securities and other investments to avoid Bankruptcy
The explanations traders purchase UITs are the low charges and the high payout charges, which, because of frequent returns of principal, will run within the double digits with decrease taxes, as a consequence of a portion of the funds is a return of capital.
What UIT traders fail to appreciate is that at the finish of the life of the UIT, very little residual value remains. Many were offered on the thought that this was like shopping for an annuity, solely much cheaper, and if you occur to died before maturity, in contrast to an annuity, you still had a residual value. The reality is that if a UIT is a serious source of your revenue, it's good to make certain that you simply and your partner don’t outlive it, as a result of little is left on the end. You also need to adjust for the erratic money move generated by early calls. This money is merely a return of capital and means future payouts should essentially by smaller. Too many UIT investors neglect these small subtleties through the years, or worse, don’t alert their partner earlier than they punch out.
A fundamental drawback with these trusts is conceptual. Whilst you can build a belief with funding-grade securities, over the course of 20 years some obvious sell candidates will appear. Very few securities needs to be bought and held blindly, simply to save heaps of fees. Actually, over time, the nice stuff tends to be called away, leaving an ever-deteriorating residual. Second, there is no market for these securities, since it's an train to worth them at any given point in time. The sponsoring brokerage homes will buy a client’s position, however count on to take a haircut. Additionally, you'll find a way to that transfer this holding to another broker if you decide to move, so make certain of the relationship. However the worst factor about UITs is that they can be the dumping floor for any bond underwriting that didn’t promote or any other holdings the agency might personal and would moderately not. Not exactly the type of securities an investor would need put into an unman aged belief, however a good way for a brokerage agency to cover its mistakes.
You will have probably examine derivatives and wondered what they have been about. The time period derivatives, in a broad sense, encompasses any security that derives its worth from one other security. Therefore, stock choices, commodity contracts, collateralize mortgage obligations (CMOs), and belief preferreds can all be outlined as derivatives. Nevertheless, when utilized by the media, it most often refers to a category of securities which are actually not securities. It has gained prominence as a result of it has grown into a trillion-dollar market, so huge that it will some day jeopardize our whole monetary system. Additionally it is an unregulated market in which only large institutions needs to be participating. But don’t suppose this can cease Wall Street from making an attempt to provide you with new methods to let Essential Avenue investors lose money as nicely.
The derivative market came about to allow giant establishments to hedge their portfolios in opposition to opposed events in interest rates, currencies, commodities, or credit score defaults. The market came about precisely as a consequence of funds have grown too massive to maneuver shortly in response to the events they're hedging against. That is carried out not by buying and selling securities, however simply by making a contract with a counter party the place, for a specified fee, one celebration will agree to settle a particular amount of contract worth at a particular date in the future on the then-existing market prices. It’s a lot the similar as a stock choice, however is extra like an possibility on the economy itself. Corporation tried to restructure its debt exterior of chapter, it tried to force its bank lenders into sharing some of the asset collateral. One bank held out and forced the bankruptcy filing. It turns out that bank had insured itself in the credit default swap market and so had every reason to say no.
Over the previous three years the media has developed an infatuation with hedge funds as in the event that they had been one thing new. What’s new is that some very smart individuals have found out a way to siphon off much more charges from clueless buyers by convincing them that an illiquid fund that doesn't have to meet SEC requirements or scrutiny must one way or the other be a better approach to invest. What’s new is that some much less good folks have also jumped on this same bandwagon for essentially the same reason. Hence we now have a whole new business with hundreds of funds and an estimated $1.5 trillion in resources.
The days of creating 25 p.c a yr via traditional investing are over. In the present day’s hotshot managers play forex markets, derivatives, natural assets, possibility methods, and many foreign markets the place stock manipulation remains to be straightforward to do. Investing with these managers is in act of faith, since few of their investors accomplish that with any diploma of understanding.
Of extra concern to me is that much of this vast pool of money will be going to assist firm managements take their corporations non-public with a view to a relaunch in three to five years at a giant profit. What’s mistaken with that, you say? Firm managements don’t just resolve suddenly to take an organization personal; it’s one thing that takes a number of planning, planning that takes place whereas they're being paid to run the firm in the very best interest of shareholders. To take a company private, it's essential to line up a cooperative board; you have to line up the financing; but most of all, you have to run the corporate for a year or two in such a way that the inventory worth is reasonable and shareholders are ready to throw in the towel. Meaning investing a great deal of money in development projects that received’t pay off within the short run; it means working down margins and operating up expenses in areas that can be reduce again briefly order after privatization. Briefly, much of the value creation derived from taking a company non-public truly takes place earlier than the corporate was privatized.
Hedge funds promise to make these sort of mismanagement profitable with little danger and without having to repay a big contingent of chapter attorneys or risking someone spoiling the game. No, not all bankruptcies are suspect; actually, most are not. All management teams taking corporations non-public, nonetheless, are. There is not a place right here for serious revenue investors. In truth, I believe abuses in this space will result in tighter regulation, the schooling of media pundits, and the eventual decline in recognition of those funds. Unfortunately, this will likely take 20 years.
Commercial Paper, Bankers Acceptances, and Repos
Business paper is short-term (primarily 30- to ninety-day) company debt issued by investment-grade corporations to cover their day-to-day money needs (they each purchase and promote such paper). Transactions are for giant quantities and offer no important yield advantage over money market funds for particular person investors. The identical goes for bankers acceptances and repurchase agreements, or repos.
Most stock investors are limited to making money only when the stock goes up in price.
The average stock investor can only realistically expect a historical market return of around 10% or slightly higher should they be adept at moving into and out of the market.
There has to be a better way of generating higher returns from the market.
The good news is that we can learn from what the real estate industry has been capitalizing on for decades.
In real estate, an investor can buy a piece of property with the hopes that the property will increase in price over time. The concept is no different from the stock investor buying a particular stock in the hopes that it too will go up in price.
The real estate investor can create a monthly cash flow by renting out his investment. In exchange for a roof over one’s head, the real estate investor is paid a monthly rent. This enables the real estate investor to make money from the price appreciation of the property as well as the monthly cash flow from the rent.
What many stock investors don’t realize is that they too can also rent out their stock in the form of covered call options. No roof over one’s head in this situation. However, the stock investor can receive cash up front by selling covered calls.
When you become a covered call writer, someone who rents out their stock in exchange for a monthly or bi-monthly rental premium, your ability to generate additional profits under varying market conditions increases.
You can make money when the stock goes up to your agreed upon rental price or what is known as the strike price. This occurs most often in an upward trending or bullish market. Often you will capture both the rental premium and any stock price appreciation between your initial price and the strike price.
This is similar to the real estate investor capturing the monthly rental check plus any price appreciation in the property over time.
For the stock investor it is possible to make money when the stock goes nowhere by capturing just the rental premium. This occurs when the markets or the stock are neutral or flat over a period of time.
You can also protect your money better should the stock experience a slight drop in price over the course of a month or so. When a stock or the market is bearish and trending lower covered calls offer some downside protection of your stock price. This is accomplished by having your rental premium lowering your initial cost basis for the stock, thus providing a slight cushion against loss of capital.
As you can see the selling of covered calls, increases your ability to generate additional cash flow from your investments. Under normal market conditions, a covered call writer can expect a monthly return in the range of 2 to 4% in additional to any stock price appreciation.
Given that you could realistically expect to sell monthly calls almost every month that equates to annual potential returns in excess of 20 to 30% – much better than the 10% a typical stock investor can expect by just buying and selling shares of stock.
The challenge now becomes in learning a few strategies that allow you to consistently capture those gains.
A growth strategy for call options is one that allows for both gains to be made in the stock price appreciation, as well as the premium received from selling your calls.
This strategy works best under the following four conditions:
1. The stock and the market as a whole are experiencing an upward bullish trend with low volatility.
This can be seen on a technical chart of the stock’s price and trading volume over several months of graphed data points. Technical charts allow the investor to better assess buy and sell opportunities. Being visual in nature the graphic representation of the historical data is easier for you to identify patterns that have unfolded in a particular stock.
An upward bullish trend in stock price appreciation signals that investors are confident enough in the global economy to invest their capital in growing businesses in the global markets.
2. The 200-day and 50-day simple moving-day averages are moving in a positive direction on high volume.
The moving day average is a popular technical indicator that shows the value of a stock over a specific time period. Traders who use trend-following strategies are drawn to what moving averages can tell them about the direction the stock’s price may be headed. Look for the 50-day moving average being above the 200-day average.
High volume equates to confidence in the stock and the underlying business. Trading volume will tell you whether or not investors are putting their money on the line. Many charts display trading volume as a bar graph at the bottom. Look for a noticeable change in the bar height – signaling higher trading volume.
3. The positive momentum of the stock price is continuous and not a spike.
A relatively steady continuous climb in the stock price is preferred over wild seemingly erratic price swings.
4. The stock is in a strong industry.
Sectors and industries tend to go in and out of favor with institutional buyers and retail investors as a whole. Often the popularity of a specific industry or sector is heavily influenced by current economic trends in the global marketplace.
For example, tech stocks were all the craze in 2011 with the massive popularity of the mobile internet.
Stocks that are in favor with Mr. Market have an easier time of seeing appreciating stock prices.
One way to compare various sectors is to look at each of the select sector “SPDRs” and compare the growth rates of price appreciation over a 3-month and 6-month time frame. For example, the Technology SPDR has the ticker symbol XLK.
Check out the MACD and RSI for the stock.
Two other technical indicators to consider using in conjunction with moving-day averages are the MACD and the Relative Strength Index or RSI.
The MACD or Moving Average Convergence Divergence is a popular momentum indicator that helps determine when a trend has ended or begun and may reverse direction.
This technical indicator uses two moving average lines and a zero line. The solid black line is called the MACD line and the slower moving red or dotted line is the signal line.
When the MACD line crosses above the signal line and the zero line this indicates a positive trend in the market. I prefer using a more sensitive setting of 8,17,9 that works well within the one-month time frame of most covered call strategies.
The other popular indictor is the relative strength index or RSI which helps to determine if an individual stock has been oversold or overbought by investors. The RSI is an oscillator that moves between 0 and 100.
When the RSI rises above 70 or 80, it is a signal that the stock is overbought and money may begin to flow out of the security causing a price decline. On the flip side, when the RSI falls below 30 or 20, it is a signal that the stock is oversold and investors may begin to buy the security causing the stock price to rise.
This particular indicator works best with individual stocks, as opposed to the market as a whole, and with a short-term time frame such as a few weeks. It is therefore a useful tool for the call option seller.
Stocks with a rising RSI above 50 and below 80 fall into our sweet spot for potential growth candidates.
Growth Generation Strategy Advantages
There are three major advantages of using the growth generation strategy, namely:
- You profit from both the option premium received and the upside appreciation of the stock.
- You have less of a chance of your stock being assigned and called away at the end of the option cycle since the stock price has further to rise than an at-the-money call option strategy.
- Time decay works in your favor since there is no intrinsic value, only time value. As time lapses, the option premium approaches zero, accelerating even faster just days prior to expiration Friday.
Growth Generation Strategy Disadvantages
The top three disadvantages are that:
- You have the least amount of downside protection should the stock decline in value, since there is no intrinsic value had you bought an in-the-money call.
- You will probably receive an initial premium that is low. The further away the strike price is from the current stock price the lower the premiums. An at-the-money call yields you the highest initial premiums.
- You will probably pay more to close your position should the stock price drop. This is due to the relationship between stock price and option price known as Delta.
Implementing the Growth Strategy
After selecting an appropriate stock, you will either need to purchase shares in order to sell covered calls on your potential candidate or sell the call options on stock that you already own.
Log into your online broker’s account to find out what the current stock price is along with the closest strike prices to the current market price.
Select the two strike prices that are just above the current price of the stock. These strike prices are known as out-of-the money calls.
Now your choice becomes as to which option strike price to sell that will ideally give you a monthly option return between 2 & 4 percent. This is the sweet spot that you should try to capture up front with your monthly covered calls.
Although you may be tempted to go for a higher overall return when you combine the option premium return plus the potential return from the stock price appreciation, you may be better served over time by focusing on the immediate cash flow into your brokerage account.
The immediate call premium is guaranteed – the stock price appreciation is not.
Once you have selected the option strike price that meets your needs, place a limit order between the Bid and Mid price being displayed the day you would like to sell your calls.
Placing a limit order affords you greater control as to what premium you will receive. With a market order you are at the whim of the market as to how much of a premium you end up receiving.
There you have it a popular cash flow strategy that involves selling covered calls on stock that you own.
At 9:50 AM morning, when the markets were expected to keep going up forever because we have new reform agendas, the markets went curiously the other way. Stunned traders watched the index fall over 10% - no, 15%. Down to 4888.2 from a close of nearly 5800 the previous day.
The problem, says the NSE, was a fat-finger trade. Where Emkay Brokers hit 59 sell orders from a dealer terminal.
The market opened normally that day and Nifty opened at 5,815. At 9.50.58, the Nifty circuit filter got triggered, upon which the cash market was closed automatically. The Nifty fall was apparently on account of the entry of 59 erroneous orders, which resulted in multiple trades for an aggregate value of over Rs. 650 crore. These orders were entered by a trading member, Emkay Global Financial Services, on behalf of an institutional client. These non-algo market orders have been entered for an erroneous quantity which resulted in executing trades at multiple price points across the entire order book, thereby causing the circuit filter to be triggered. These orders have been identified to a specific dealer terminal.
While the Exchange systems functioned normally without any glitch, the above abnormal trades caused market closure automatically, due to the index circuit filter getting triggered. The market was reopened by the Exchange with a pre-open phase at 10.00.22 and trading resumed at 10.05.00 and the market functioned normally. The Exchange is investigating the matter.
The operating phrase here is "non-algo" - meaning these were trades that were not algorithmic. How does NSE know? It asks algorithms to only send their orders with a code that identifies them as algos. And every algorithm must be approved by NSE.
But does everyone follow this rule? Does nobody attempt to execute orders through algorithms anyway, since you are allowed to programmatically send trades through an API? Excuse me while I laugh my head off.
Emkay's official response is like this:
On October 5, 2012, while executing an order to transact a Nifty cash basket, in Nifty-50, a dealer committed a bona fide error. The error was in entering the value of the order as the quantity of Nifty-50 basket to be transacted. The order got transmitted to the NSE trading server as a single large Nifty basket order comprising of nifty 50 stocks. Immediately on realizing the error, we promptly got in touch with the NSE and kept in touch with them to co-ordinate all future course of action until the entire erroneous outstanding position was closed out.
All our remaining clients’ outstanding positions are intact and we will continue to service all obligations. We are hopeful that this obvious and apparent error would justify the annulment of these trades, and believe in the NSE's professional management to see the merits for annulment, which is the practice worldwide. The NSE has disabled trading for us to facilitate investigations and primarily to prevent any further exposure until this settlement is completed.
Since the trades were on the Nifty index, which has 50 stocks, it's very surprising that there were 59 orders that were "rogue" - a basket order should only send in 50 orders, or a multiple, even if it was a fat finger.
Note that many brokers - and I'm not naming names here - do run algorithms without letting the exchange know. It's simple - there's an API, and you can use it to create a trading software, but you can also use it to send orders algorithmically if you're a broker. I'm not saying Emkay did that, and if it was an algorithm it would be a silly one to send such large market orders when there wasn't enough depth.
However, this raises questions - was this a legal trade? Of course. An order of that size SHOULD bring the market down, fat finger or otherwise. The thing that helps is circuit breakers, and the Nifty circuit helped. But individual stock circuits (for those that have futures on them) are around 20%, which could be deemed as too high - instead, we could use dynamic circuits that open up automatically as more limit orders come in at the edge (such as in the case of Satyam when the stock should have fallen because the news really was bad).
Dynamic circuits can operate intelligently parallel to the market, ensuring that large market orders are rejected at the fringe, with a mandatory minute or two of a hold before they open up further. So you start with 10%, and if the limit is hit, all orders below the limit are rejected for two minutes, and then the limit is opened up another 5%, and then another 5% and so on. A stock that needs to fall due to fundamental factors will take about a half hour to fall 80%, if it really should - and the wait is indeed a good thing.
Emkay's demand that the trades be annulled should be rejected outright. What if you bought a stock at a price, say, 10% below from Emkay's trade, and then sold it intraday for a 10% profit when the market rebounded? It would be a travesty if they annulled one trade but not the other. And you had no idea you profited from Emkay's fat finger - that news came only much later! Yes, such trades have been annulled in other exchanges (including twice in the BSE) but annulling such trades gives a horrible lesson that you can get away if your mistake is big enough. Emkay did not set up proper limits and they should suffer the consequences - even if the consequence is that they have to pay a hefty price.
(Note: If you and I do a trade like this that makes us bankrupt, you can be sure they won't agree to annul such trades)
More importantly, we will see such situations more often - the next one might be triggered by an algorithm. It's less useful to focus on "ban this" or "ban that". Create a big enough deterrent through fines and making brokers face their losses, and things will fall in line.
At some point in time, every investor faces the emotional roller coaster that ensues after a setback in the markets.
Not every trade or position is going to be profitable. The savvy investor knows this, adapting to the ever changing investment landscape by learning from mistakes and focusing on the next profitable opportunity.
So, how can you quickly re-focus your energy and thoughts on generating consistently profitable trades when you’ve just experienced a setback?
Here are my top five favorite ways that get me back into the game ready to take up the challenge:
1. Let Yourself Feel Bad
Yes, you heard me right. Avoid bottling up your frustrations, letting them eat away at you over time.
Denise Shull in her groundbreaking book Market Mind Games suggests doing just that in saying “that the most helpful thing to do when you have blown it is to feel bad”.
She goes on to outline that the feeling will pass and while it is passing it points our minds and intellects to areas where we can improve or learn.
2. Head to the Gym
To help clear your head get in a good workout at your local gym or by simply heading out the door for a jog or cycle. Exercise is a great way to relieve stress.
It quickly helps you dissipate the negative emotional energy associated with thinking about your investment loss.
This is one of my favorite ways to get back into the game. Heading out for an easy trail run does wonders for my stress level, especially when I can take in the natural beauty within the park environment.
3. Find a Moment of Quiet Time
If you are in the habit of meditating or doing mild physical activity such as yoga or tai chi coupled with mind clearing reflection then this form of positive distraction beats dwelling on your negative news.
Just the simple act of performing a few minutes of deep breathing exercises in a peaceful comfortable setting will do wonders to bring your stress level down to a manageable level.
Once your stress level and your thought processes are back on track you are better equipped to re-focus your energy on finding the next great investment opportunity inevitably waiting for you in the markets.
The key is to quickly regain your level of confidence and investor’s “edge” so that you can get back into the rhythm of recognizing potentially profitable investment opportunities as they unfold.
4. Create a Lasting Positive Memory
Consider replacing the negative memory associated with your major loss with a positive one.
Rather than continue to beat yourself up over your loss, take a proactive role and actively seek out creating lasting positive memories that will help you change your mind set.
Why not do something that will rejuvenate your body and mind?
How about heading to the local spa, enjoying the company of others over a barbeque, or grabbing a bite to eat at your favorite restaurant?
Life is meant to be enjoyed. Try not to lose sight of this. Take an active role in creating those lasting memories that will help you get back in top form sooner.
5. Use Positive Self Talk
Start changing the negative story that you may be telling yourself by repeating supportive declarations that will empower you.
Some of my favorite declarations that have helped me during challenging times are:
- Stay the course. Focus on the dream.
- Positive thoughts bring me the benefits and outcomes I desire.
- I can do it! I believe in myself.
There you have it, some of my favorite ways of getting back into the investment game with the level of confidence that I need in order to optimize my decision-making capabilities.
Hopefully, at least one of these ideas will resonate with you and get you back into exploring the wonderful world of stock investing faster.
To your ongoing success as an investor.